Diet. No study has proven that diet and nutrition can directly cause or prevent the development of prostate cancer, but many studies that look at links between certain behaviors and cancer suggest there may be a connection. There is not enough information yet to make clear recommendations about the role diet plays in prostate cancer, and dietary changes may need to be made many years earlier in a man’s life to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. The following dietary information may be helpful:
A diet high in fat, especially animal fat, may increase prostate cancer risk. In fact, many doctors believe that a low-fat diet may help to reduce the risk of prostate cancer in addition to having other health benefits.
A diet high in vegetables, fruits, and legumes (beans and peas) may decrease risk of prostate cancer. It is unclear which nutrients are directly responsible. Lycopene, found in tomatoes and other vegetables, may slow or prevent cancer growth. In any case, such a diet does not cause harm and can lower a person’s blood pressure and risk of heart disease.
Selenium, an element that people get in very small amounts from food and water, and vitamin E have been tested to find out if either or both of these nutrients can lower the risk of prostate cancer. However, in a clinical trial (a research study involving people) of more than 35,000 men called the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), researchers found that selenium and vitamin E supplements (pills), taken alone or together for an average of five years, did not prevent prostate cancer and may even cause harm in some men. Because of this risk, the National Cancer Institute has stopped the SELECT study. Men should talk with their doctor before taking selenium and vitamin E supplements to prevent prostate cancer.
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