The circulatory and lymphatic systems are the body’s transport system. They carry nutrients and other important molecules to cells and carry away waste. When these systems do not function properly, the body is more susceptible to illness and infection.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a form of acute myeloid leukemia, a cancer of the blood-forming tissue (bone marrow). In normal bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells produce red blood cells (erythrocytes) that carry oxygen, white blood cells (leukocytes) that protect the body from infection, and platelets (thrombocytes) that are involved in blood clotting. In acute promyelocytic leukemia, immature white blood cells called promyelocytes accumulate in the bone marrow. The overgrowth of promyelocytes leads to a shortage of normal white and red blood cells and platelets in the body, which causes many of the signs and symptoms of the condition.
The mutation that causes acute promyelocytic leukemia involves two genes, the PML gene on chromosome 15 and the RARA gene on chromosome 17. A rearrangement of genetic material (translocation) between chromosomes 15 and 17, written as t(15;17), fuses part of the PML gene with part of the RARA gene. The protein produced from this fused gene is known as PML-RARα. This mutation is acquired during a person’s lifetime and is present only in certain cells. This type of genetic change, called a somatic mutation, is not inherited.
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