Screening for prostate cancer is done to find evidence of cancer in otherwise healthy men. Two tests are commonly used to screen for prostate cancer: the PSA blood test and digital rectal examination (DRE, a test in which the doctor inserts a gloved lubricated finger into a man’s rectum and feels the surface of the prostate for any irregularities).
There is controversy about using the PSA test to look for prostate cancer in men with no symptoms of the disease. On one hand, the PSA test is useful for detecting early prostate cancer, which helps men get the treatment they need before the cancer spreads. On the other hand, PSA screening find conditions that are not cancer and slow-growing prostate cancers that would never threaten a man’s life. Because of this, screening for prostate cancer may mean that some men have surgery and other treatments that may not ever be needed. For this reason, many men and their doctors may consider active surveillance (see Treatment) of the cancer rather than immediate treatment.
Because biopsies and treatment have significant side effects, such as impotence (inability to get and maintain an erection) and incontinence (inability to control urine flow) treating it unnecessarily may seriously affect a man’s quality of life. However, it is not easy to predict which tumors will grow and spread quickly and which will grow slowly.
According to a provisional clinical opinion on PSA screening for men with no symptoms of prostate cancer, ASCO recommends that men expected to live 10 years or less should not have PSA screening and men expected to live longer than 10 years should talk with their doctors to find out if the test is appropriate for them. Every man should discuss his situation and risk of prostate cancer and work with his doctor to make a decision. To help with this discussion, ASCO provides a Decision Aid on prostate cancer screening.
Age: Age is definitely the most potent risk factor for prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is rather exceptional prior to age of 40, though the possibility of having prostate cancer soars rapidly following age 50. Almost 2 in 3 prostate cancers are found in males much older than 65.
Genealogy: Prostate cancer appears to run in a few families, which suggests that sometimes there might be an inherited or genetic factor.
Race/ethnicity: Prostate cancer takes place more often in African-American men compared with men of different races. The explanations for these racial and ethnic differences are usually not clear.
Nationality: Prostate cancer is most frequent in North America, northwestern European Union and Australia. It’s less common in Asia and Africa. The causes for this are not obvious.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Gold Coast, Queensland,
St. Petersburg, Florida
Korea (North), Pyongyang,
City of Randwick, Australia
Al Jaddah, United Arab Emirates, Al Jaddah, UAE
Exercise: Exercise hasn’t been proven to minimize prostate cancer threat in many researches. However, many studies have found that high variety of exercise, particularly in elderly men, may lower the danger of advanced prostate cancer. Additional research in this area is needed.
Genes: Lately, some normal gene variations have been linked to the risk of prostate cancer. Research to confirm these results are needed to see if testing for the gene variants will be useful in forecasting prostate cancer risk. A few genetic structures increase the risk for more than one type of cancer. Mutations of selected genes may also increase prostate cancer risk in a few men; however they make up a very modest ratio of prostate cancer incidents.
Excessive weight: Most studies have not found that being obese (having large quantities of extra unwanted fat) is related with a greater risk of getting prostate cancer. The reason why for this are not clear. Studies have also found that obese men could be at greater risk for having more complex prostate cancer and of dying from prostate cancer.
New Jersey, USA
Panama, Panama City
Melville Victoria Australia
Saint Kitts and Nevis, Basseterre
Diet. No study has proven that diet and nutrition can directly cause or prevent the development of prostate cancer, but many studies that look at links between certain behaviors and cancer suggest there may be a connection. There is not enough information yet to make clear recommendations about the role diet plays in prostate cancer, and dietary changes may need to be made many years earlier in a man’s life to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. The following dietary information may be helpful:
A diet high in fat, especially animal fat, may increase prostate cancer risk. In fact, many doctors believe that a low-fat diet may help to reduce the risk of prostate cancer in addition to having other health benefits.
A diet high in vegetables, fruits, and legumes (beans and peas) may decrease risk of prostate cancer. It is unclear which nutrients are directly responsible. Lycopene, found in tomatoes and other vegetables, may slow or prevent cancer growth. In any case, such a diet does not cause harm and can lower a person’s blood pressure and risk of heart disease.
Selenium, an element that people get in very small amounts from food and water, and vitamin E have been tested to find out if either or both of these nutrients can lower the risk of prostate cancer. However, in a clinical trial (a research study involving people) of more than 35,000 men called the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), researchers found that selenium and vitamin E supplements (pills), taken alone or together for an average of five years, did not prevent prostate cancer and may even cause harm in some men. Because of this risk, the National Cancer Institute has stopped the SELECT study. Men should talk with their doctor before taking selenium and vitamin E supplements to prevent prostate cancer.
Murray Bridge, South Australia
Prostate cancer is a sort of cancer which develops in the prostate, a human gland within the male reproductive system. The majority of prostate gland cancers are slow developing; even so, there can be conditions of extreme prostate cancers.
Though really don’t yet completely understand the factors that cause prostate cancer, scientific study has found numerous issues which will alter the risk of getting it. For most of the factors, the link to prostate cancer risk is not clear. Lots of people with at least one risk factor hardly ever get cancer, while some with this disease could have had no known risk factors.
You can find a great number of risk factors of prostate cancer and all of these are explained below:
Eating habits: The exact role of diet in prostate cancer isn’t grasped, even though several different factors are generally studied. Men or women who eat a lot of beef or high-fat dairy food appear to have a slightly higher chance of getting prostate cancer. Most of these guys also usually eat less fruits and vegetables. Health professionals are not sure which of the factors is mainly responsible for elevating the risk.
United Kingdom, London
St. Kitts and Nevis, Basseterre
As noted above, prostate cancer has a slow clinical course without immediate and obvious manifestations. It is therefore very important, as 50 years old men go to the doctor once a year for a rectal examination. This can be done by any doctor, regardless of specialty. In addition to digital rectal examination, if cancer is suspected, a biopsy should be performed, and blood analysis, for the determination of a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA). If there is family history, it is important that this examination be made starting at age of 40.
Calivita natural products for treatment and prevention of prostate cancer
– Shark cartilage extract, available as Shark Aid, is beneficial in benign and malignant tumors inhibition and has anti-inflammatory affect. It is particularly beneficial in preventing cancer of any kind.
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– Omega 3 fatty acids are known for their anti-inflammatory effects, antioxidant, stimulating and anticancer. Help prevent many disease caused by daily stress or an weakened immune system and treat a variety of diseases such as depression, heart disease, cancer, cirrhosis, etc..
– Reverse osmosis water filter, Aquarion, produce ionized water, rich in oxygen and no toxins or heavy metals. Alkaline water has antioxidant properties, offering many benefits for the body, because the disease cannot be developed in an alkaline environment. Oxygen also prevents the formation of numerous diseases, including cancer.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Al Ghabah, United Arab Emirates, Al Ghabah, UAE
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men after lung cancer. It is estimated to be found in as many as half of all men over the age of 70 and in almost all men over the age of ninety. Since the discovery of the blood test for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in the 1980’s, prostate cancer can now be detected at a much earlier stage.
In 1999, there were over 250,000 new cases of prostate cancer with 45,000 deaths. The average age of diagnosis is 72 years and 95% of cases are diagnosed between the ages of 45-89.
The incidence of prostate cancer varies among different ethnicities. The incidence is highest in African Americans and lowest in Asian Americans. Mortality from prostate cancer has slowly risen over the last 10 years which is likely attributable to the fact that the American population is aging and experiencing less cardiovascular mortality.
A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do not directly cause cancer. Some people with several risk factors never develop cancer, while others with no known risk factors do. However, knowing your risk factors and talking about them with your doctor may help you make more informed lifestyle and health care choices.
Because the exact cause of prostate cancer is still unknown, it is also unknown how to prevent prostate cancer.
Kuwait, Kuwait City,
Mobile Alabama USA
Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain
The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped sex gland in men that produces the seminal fluid, which nourishes and transports sperm. The growth of the cells in the prostate gland is stimulated by the male sex hormone called testosterone. Though its causes are unknown, prostate cancer is a frightening prospect for men. This cancer threatens not just their lives, but also their sexuality. Possible consequences of treatment (even if the treatment has been successful in saving a person’s life) include erectile dysfunction and bladder control problems. Prostate cancer progresses very slowly and the early stages show little or no symptoms. If detected early, effective treatment with minimum side effects is possible. Once the cancer spreads (metastizes) treatment becomes more difficult.
A man’s vulnerability to prostate cancer increases with age. Most often, prostate cancer is detected very late and people who lose their lives do not die from prostate cancer, but die WITH prostate cancer. As the cancer develops, it eventually squeezes the urethra, which surrounds the prostate. This is when signs and symptoms begin to appear:
-Urgency in urination
-Difficulty in starting urination
-Dull, persistent ache in the lower pelvic area
-Painful urination, a very slow flow (almost like a dribble)
-Intermittent urine flow, and a sensation that the bladder is not empty
-Frequent urination, sometimes including blood
-Persistent pain in the bones, lower back, hip and thighs
-General ill health, loss of appetite, and decline in weight
If the cells from the cancerous prostrate break away, the cancer will spread. Most commonly, prostate cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, bones in the hips or the lower back, lungs, and sometimes even the brain.
Carrollton Texas USA
City of Hawkesbury, Australia
What is in common to all three forms of infection – bacterial, viral and fungal, is that they are caused by invading parasitic microorganisms. In other words, microorganisms that use the host – human body – to feed and multiply, without giving anything back. In fact, their over-proliferation damages the host.
Aside from parasitic microorganisms, there are larger forms of parasitic organisms either inhabiting the body – like intestinal parasites, from protozoa (animal-like microorganisms that hunt and swallow their food) to intestinal worms – or external blood suckers, like mosquitoes, lice, ticks or leeches. Not seldom these relatively large parasitic organisms are carriers of pathogenic microorganisms causing serious and life-threatening infections (lime disease, malaria, West Nile encephalitis/meningitis, etc.).
Most infectious diseases are easy to diagnose, and are usually treated successfully with antibiotics. However, the emerging problem is increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms, mainly resulting from the overuse of antibiotics in both, human health care and in animals commercially grown for food. The more extensive use of antibiotics, the wider breeding ground for new, antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.
This wasn’t hard to predict. As far back as early 1960’s, Rachel Carson (Silent Spring) was trying to bring attention to many negative effects of the overuse of pesticides, one of them being creating resistant insect strains. Somehow, a direct parallel escaped organized medicine when it comes to the (over)use of antibiotics.
The war against pathogenic microorganisms we can’t win – at best we can stay one step ahead. New antibiotics containing more than a single bacterial toxin are being developed as we speak. These will be more efficient initially but, after a while – just as it’s happened with the first generation of antibiotics – new superbugs will emerge, more resistant and more dangerous than ever!
Luckily, other options are open. One is the use of selective viruses which would only attack harmful bacteria. The other is to target bacterial DNA directly; either way, it will likely be up to molecular/genetic medicine to spare the humanity from devastating epidemics in the near future.
As always – and especially considering increasingly inefficient antibiotic treatments – your best bet is still to take good care of your health in general, and health of your immune system in particular. Thus good digestion, quality nutrition and lowering your toxic exposure become even more important. Also, avoiding foods of animal origin where the animals are routinely given antibiotics – and that is almost always the case with animals grown in confined spaces – significantly reduces your chances of being infected with antibiotic-resistant strains.
Healthy digestive tract is a must for efficient immune and
detox system, as well as for your health in general.
To assess its state of health – as well as possible hidden bacterial and fungal infections – you need to use appropriate lab tests.
Poor diet and compromised gut health is most often what causes your body defenses to weaken, making your body an easy pray to infectious microorganisms. You may have them temporarily suppressed with antibiotic treatments, but they will keep coming back as long as you don’t address and correct this core problem.
Tempe Arizona USA
Rochester, New York
Equatorial Guinea, Malabo
Cote d’Ivoire, Yamoussoukro
Fujairah, United Arab Emirates, Fujairah, UAE
Fungi (plural for fungus) are different from both viruses and bacteria in many ways. They are larger, plant-like organisms that lack chlorophyll (the substance that makes plants green and converts sunlight into energy). Since fungi do not have chlorophyll to make food, they have to absorb food from whatever they are growing on. Fungi can be very helpful – brewing beer, making bread rise, decomposing trash – but they can also be harmful if they steal nutrients from another living organism. When most people think of fungi they picture the mushrooms that we eat. True, mushrooms are important fungi, but there are other forms such as molds and yeasts.
Structure: The main identifying characteristic of fungi is the makeup of their cell walls. Many contain a nitrogenous substance known as “”chitin,”” which is not found in the cell walls of plants, but can be found in the outer shells of some crabs and mollusks. Most fungi are multicellular (made up of many cells), with the exception of the yeasts. The cells make up a network of branching tubes known as “”hyphae,”” and a mass of hyphae is called a “”mycelium.”” The insides of the cells look a little different than bacterial cells. First of all, the genetic material is gathered together and enclosed by a membrane in what is called the “”nucleus.”” Also, there are other structures called “”organelles”” in the cell that help the cell to function, such as mitochondria (converts energy), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (makes complex proteins), and other organelles. The Golgi apparatus forms many types of proteins and enzymes. Lysosomes contain enzymes and help digest nutrients. Centrioles are necessary for proper division of the cell. Both bacteria and fungi have ribosomes, but those of the bacteria are smaller in size and also reproduce differently.
Reproduction: Fungi can reproduce in multiple ways depending upon the type of fungus and the environmental conditions:
Production of spores asexually
Production of spores sexually
Budding occurs in yeasts, which are only made up of one cell. Budding is somewhat similar to binary fission in bacteria, in that the single cell divides into two separate cells.
Fragmentation is a mode of reproduction used by those fungi that form hyphae. During fragmentation, some of the hyphae break off and simply start growing as new individuals.
Spores are tiny single cells that are produced by fungi that have hyphae. They can be produced asexually by a process in which the tips of the hyphae form specially encased cells – the spores. Some fungi also produce spores sexually. Two types of special cells called “”gametes”” are produced. One of each type unite to produce a new individual spore. Spores are tiny single cells that are usually very resistant to environmental changes. They can remain dormant for long periods of time until the conditions are right for them to develop into mature individuals.
Hosts and resistance: Fungi are heterotrophs, meaning that they secrete digestive enzymes and absorb the resulting soluble nutrients from whatever they are growing on. For this reason they are great decomposers in the ecosystem, but they can also cause problems when they begin to absorb nutrients from a living organism. They most commonly are breathed in or have contact with the skin. If conditions are right and they start to reproduce, disease can result. Some antifungal agents are available to treat these infections, but it has been much more difficult for scientists to create successful antifungal drugs than antibacterial drugs because the cells of fungi are much closer in structure to the cells of animals than are bacteria.
In creating drugs, it is hard to find an agent that will kill the fungal cells and leave the animal cells unharmed. The most successful drugs that have been created prevent the formation of chitin, and therefore prevent the fungus from creating new cell walls and spreading. The cell wall is the only structure that is not shared by the animal and fungal cells. Other drugs bind to specific fungal proteins and prevent growth. Unfortunately, many of the drugs available are only fungistatic, meaning they can only prevent further growth rather than fungicidal, meaning to kill the fungus. Many of the drugs used for serious fungal infections have potentially toxic side effects.
Which diseases are which?
When a pet or a human contracts an infection, it is important to understand how the disease works, and where it came from. This is important for treatment, as well as to protect other animals or humans from becoming ill. The following table categorizes some common diseases in various species of animals as viral, bacterial, or fungal.
St. Louis, Missouri
Victorville California USA
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
San Buenaventura (Ventura), California