As noted above, prostate cancer has a slow clinical course without immediate and obvious manifestations. It is therefore very important, as 50 years old men go to the doctor once a year for a rectal examination. This can be done by any doctor, regardless of specialty. In addition to digital rectal examination, if cancer is suspected, a biopsy should be performed, and blood analysis, for the determination of a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA). If there is family history, it is important that this examination be made starting at age of 40.
Calivita natural products for treatment and prevention of prostate cancer
– Shark cartilage extract, available as Shark Aid, is beneficial in benign and malignant tumors inhibition and has anti-inflammatory affect. It is particularly beneficial in preventing cancer of any kind.
– Extracts from plants and minerals from Pro-State Power composition are chosen specifically to make a natural treatment for prostate adenoma. It is a real help for men with BPH.
– Immunostimulating effect of Noni extract from Noni Caps supplement composition offers body resistance for various diseases and becomes a valuable natural treatment in various cancers, tumors and cancers.
– Omega 3 fatty acids are known for their anti-inflammatory effects, antioxidant, stimulating and anticancer. Help prevent many disease caused by daily stress or an weakened immune system and treat a variety of diseases such as depression, heart disease, cancer, cirrhosis, etc..
– Reverse osmosis water filter, Aquarion, produce ionized water, rich in oxygen and no toxins or heavy metals. Alkaline water has antioxidant properties, offering many benefits for the body, because the disease cannot be developed in an alkaline environment. Oxygen also prevents the formation of numerous diseases, including cancer.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Al Ghabah, United Arab Emirates, Al Ghabah, UAE
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men after lung cancer. It is estimated to be found in as many as half of all men over the age of 70 and in almost all men over the age of ninety. Since the discovery of the blood test for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in the 1980’s, prostate cancer can now be detected at a much earlier stage.
In 1999, there were over 250,000 new cases of prostate cancer with 45,000 deaths. The average age of diagnosis is 72 years and 95% of cases are diagnosed between the ages of 45-89.
The incidence of prostate cancer varies among different ethnicities. The incidence is highest in African Americans and lowest in Asian Americans. Mortality from prostate cancer has slowly risen over the last 10 years which is likely attributable to the fact that the American population is aging and experiencing less cardiovascular mortality.
A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do not directly cause cancer. Some people with several risk factors never develop cancer, while others with no known risk factors do. However, knowing your risk factors and talking about them with your doctor may help you make more informed lifestyle and health care choices.
Because the exact cause of prostate cancer is still unknown, it is also unknown how to prevent prostate cancer.
Kuwait, Kuwait City,
Mobile Alabama USA
Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-Spain
The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped sex gland in men that produces the seminal fluid, which nourishes and transports sperm. The growth of the cells in the prostate gland is stimulated by the male sex hormone called testosterone. Though its causes are unknown, prostate cancer is a frightening prospect for men. This cancer threatens not just their lives, but also their sexuality. Possible consequences of treatment (even if the treatment has been successful in saving a person’s life) include erectile dysfunction and bladder control problems. Prostate cancer progresses very slowly and the early stages show little or no symptoms. If detected early, effective treatment with minimum side effects is possible. Once the cancer spreads (metastizes) treatment becomes more difficult.
A man’s vulnerability to prostate cancer increases with age. Most often, prostate cancer is detected very late and people who lose their lives do not die from prostate cancer, but die WITH prostate cancer. As the cancer develops, it eventually squeezes the urethra, which surrounds the prostate. This is when signs and symptoms begin to appear:
-Urgency in urination
-Difficulty in starting urination
-Dull, persistent ache in the lower pelvic area
-Painful urination, a very slow flow (almost like a dribble)
-Intermittent urine flow, and a sensation that the bladder is not empty
-Frequent urination, sometimes including blood
-Persistent pain in the bones, lower back, hip and thighs
-General ill health, loss of appetite, and decline in weight
If the cells from the cancerous prostrate break away, the cancer will spread. Most commonly, prostate cancer spreads to the lymph nodes, bones in the hips or the lower back, lungs, and sometimes even the brain.
Carrollton Texas USA
City of Hawkesbury, Australia
What is in common to all three forms of infection – bacterial, viral and fungal, is that they are caused by invading parasitic microorganisms. In other words, microorganisms that use the host – human body – to feed and multiply, without giving anything back. In fact, their over-proliferation damages the host.
Aside from parasitic microorganisms, there are larger forms of parasitic organisms either inhabiting the body – like intestinal parasites, from protozoa (animal-like microorganisms that hunt and swallow their food) to intestinal worms – or external blood suckers, like mosquitoes, lice, ticks or leeches. Not seldom these relatively large parasitic organisms are carriers of pathogenic microorganisms causing serious and life-threatening infections (lime disease, malaria, West Nile encephalitis/meningitis, etc.).
Most infectious diseases are easy to diagnose, and are usually treated successfully with antibiotics. However, the emerging problem is increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms, mainly resulting from the overuse of antibiotics in both, human health care and in animals commercially grown for food. The more extensive use of antibiotics, the wider breeding ground for new, antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.
This wasn’t hard to predict. As far back as early 1960’s, Rachel Carson (Silent Spring) was trying to bring attention to many negative effects of the overuse of pesticides, one of them being creating resistant insect strains. Somehow, a direct parallel escaped organized medicine when it comes to the (over)use of antibiotics.
The war against pathogenic microorganisms we can’t win – at best we can stay one step ahead. New antibiotics containing more than a single bacterial toxin are being developed as we speak. These will be more efficient initially but, after a while – just as it’s happened with the first generation of antibiotics – new superbugs will emerge, more resistant and more dangerous than ever!
Luckily, other options are open. One is the use of selective viruses which would only attack harmful bacteria. The other is to target bacterial DNA directly; either way, it will likely be up to molecular/genetic medicine to spare the humanity from devastating epidemics in the near future.
As always – and especially considering increasingly inefficient antibiotic treatments – your best bet is still to take good care of your health in general, and health of your immune system in particular. Thus good digestion, quality nutrition and lowering your toxic exposure become even more important. Also, avoiding foods of animal origin where the animals are routinely given antibiotics – and that is almost always the case with animals grown in confined spaces – significantly reduces your chances of being infected with antibiotic-resistant strains.
Healthy digestive tract is a must for efficient immune and
detox system, as well as for your health in general.
To assess its state of health – as well as possible hidden bacterial and fungal infections – you need to use appropriate lab tests.
Poor diet and compromised gut health is most often what causes your body defenses to weaken, making your body an easy pray to infectious microorganisms. You may have them temporarily suppressed with antibiotic treatments, but they will keep coming back as long as you don’t address and correct this core problem.
Tempe Arizona USA
Rochester, New York
Equatorial Guinea, Malabo
Cote d’Ivoire, Yamoussoukro
Fujairah, United Arab Emirates, Fujairah, UAE
Fungi (plural for fungus) are different from both viruses and bacteria in many ways. They are larger, plant-like organisms that lack chlorophyll (the substance that makes plants green and converts sunlight into energy). Since fungi do not have chlorophyll to make food, they have to absorb food from whatever they are growing on. Fungi can be very helpful – brewing beer, making bread rise, decomposing trash – but they can also be harmful if they steal nutrients from another living organism. When most people think of fungi they picture the mushrooms that we eat. True, mushrooms are important fungi, but there are other forms such as molds and yeasts.
Structure: The main identifying characteristic of fungi is the makeup of their cell walls. Many contain a nitrogenous substance known as “”chitin,”” which is not found in the cell walls of plants, but can be found in the outer shells of some crabs and mollusks. Most fungi are multicellular (made up of many cells), with the exception of the yeasts. The cells make up a network of branching tubes known as “”hyphae,”” and a mass of hyphae is called a “”mycelium.”” The insides of the cells look a little different than bacterial cells. First of all, the genetic material is gathered together and enclosed by a membrane in what is called the “”nucleus.”” Also, there are other structures called “”organelles”” in the cell that help the cell to function, such as mitochondria (converts energy), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (makes complex proteins), and other organelles. The Golgi apparatus forms many types of proteins and enzymes. Lysosomes contain enzymes and help digest nutrients. Centrioles are necessary for proper division of the cell. Both bacteria and fungi have ribosomes, but those of the bacteria are smaller in size and also reproduce differently.
Reproduction: Fungi can reproduce in multiple ways depending upon the type of fungus and the environmental conditions:
Production of spores asexually
Production of spores sexually
Budding occurs in yeasts, which are only made up of one cell. Budding is somewhat similar to binary fission in bacteria, in that the single cell divides into two separate cells.
Fragmentation is a mode of reproduction used by those fungi that form hyphae. During fragmentation, some of the hyphae break off and simply start growing as new individuals.
Spores are tiny single cells that are produced by fungi that have hyphae. They can be produced asexually by a process in which the tips of the hyphae form specially encased cells – the spores. Some fungi also produce spores sexually. Two types of special cells called “”gametes”” are produced. One of each type unite to produce a new individual spore. Spores are tiny single cells that are usually very resistant to environmental changes. They can remain dormant for long periods of time until the conditions are right for them to develop into mature individuals.
Hosts and resistance: Fungi are heterotrophs, meaning that they secrete digestive enzymes and absorb the resulting soluble nutrients from whatever they are growing on. For this reason they are great decomposers in the ecosystem, but they can also cause problems when they begin to absorb nutrients from a living organism. They most commonly are breathed in or have contact with the skin. If conditions are right and they start to reproduce, disease can result. Some antifungal agents are available to treat these infections, but it has been much more difficult for scientists to create successful antifungal drugs than antibacterial drugs because the cells of fungi are much closer in structure to the cells of animals than are bacteria.
In creating drugs, it is hard to find an agent that will kill the fungal cells and leave the animal cells unharmed. The most successful drugs that have been created prevent the formation of chitin, and therefore prevent the fungus from creating new cell walls and spreading. The cell wall is the only structure that is not shared by the animal and fungal cells. Other drugs bind to specific fungal proteins and prevent growth. Unfortunately, many of the drugs available are only fungistatic, meaning they can only prevent further growth rather than fungicidal, meaning to kill the fungus. Many of the drugs used for serious fungal infections have potentially toxic side effects.
Which diseases are which?
When a pet or a human contracts an infection, it is important to understand how the disease works, and where it came from. This is important for treatment, as well as to protect other animals or humans from becoming ill. The following table categorizes some common diseases in various species of animals as viral, bacterial, or fungal.
St. Louis, Missouri
Victorville California USA
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
San Buenaventura (Ventura), California
Parasites may be protozoa, fungi, or multi-cellular organisms. Many parasites have complex life cycles that insure their proliferation and survival.
As mentioned above, protozoa have a more complex organization than bacteria. Some protozoa form cysts that protect them from harsh conditions and enable them to live outside of a host for a long time. Some diseases caused by protozoans are:
Malaria (transmitted by mosquitos) is most prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa
Leishmaniasis (transmitted by sandflies which are about one-third the size of mosquitoes)
African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness transmitted by the tsetse fly)
Amoebic dysentery – infection of the intestine caused by an ameba (Entamoeba histolytica), which causes severe diarrhea.
Coccidiosis – intestinal infection that causes bloody diarrhea.
Cryptosporidiosis – parasitic disease of the intestine caused by Cryptosporidium.
Giardial enteritis – an infection of the small intestine caused by Giardia lamblia.
Toxoplasmosis – a systemic parasitic infection transmitted by eating undercooked meat or contamination by cat feces.
Malaria, a debilitating disease that causes high fevers, is contracted through the bite of an infected mosquito. The parasite reproduces within the human liver and red blood cells (shown above), and it is transmitted back to other mosquitos when they feed on the infected person. Mosquitoes and flies are also vectors of parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness and elephantiasis.
Fungi include one-celled yeasts slightly bigger than bacteria, and multi-celled mushrooms and molds. Fungi do not have chlorophyll to make their own food, so they get their nutrition as parasites or by breaking down remains of dead plants or animals. Some fungi are poisonous (e.g., Amanita mushrooms), but some have beneficial uses. For example, Penicillium notatum produces the antibiotic penicillin and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the yeast used to make bread rise and to brew beer. Fungal diseases are called mycoses and include:
Aspergillosis – infection of sinuses and lungs
Blastomycosis – skin and pulmonary infections
Candidiasis – cutaneous and vaginal infections. Candida albicans is the most common cause of vaginal yeast infections.
Coccidioidomycosis – may cause cough, chest pain, shortness of breath
Cryptococcosis – may be transmitted in pigeon droppings
Multicellular parasites include various kinds of worms and fungi that cause diseases such as:
Lymphatic filariasis or elephantiasis (transmitted by mosquitos)
Schistosomiasis (liver or blood flukes)
Trichinosis – a disease caused by consumption of poorly cooked meat that contains cysts of Trichinella spiralis.
Tinea corporis, tinea pedis (ringworm, athlete’s foot)
South Bend, Indiana
Miramar Florida USA
Columbia, South Carolina
City of Shoalhaven, Australia
Russian Federation, Moscow City
Baqal, United Arab Emirates, Baqal, UAE
Bacteria are very different from viruses. First of all, bacteria are much larger in size. The largest virus is only as big as the very smallest bacterium (singular for bacteria). But bacteria are still microscopic and cannot be seen with the naked eye. They are so small that the sizes of bacteria are measured in micrometers (10,000 micrometers = 1 centimeter). By comparison, the head of a pin is about 1000 micrometers wide. Though more complex than a virus, the structure of a bacterium is still relatively simple.
Structure: Most bacteria have an outer, rigid cell wall. This provides shape and support. Lining the inside of the cell wall is a plasma membrane. This is like the membrane found around all living cells that provides both a boundary for the contents of the cell and a barrier to substances entering and leaving. The content inside the cell is called “”cytoplasm.”” Suspended in the cytoplasm are ribosomes (for protein synthesis), the nucleoid (concentrated genetic material), and plasmids (small, circular pieces of DNA, some of which carry genes that control resistance to various drugs). All living cells have ribosomes, but those of bacteria are smaller than those found in any other cell. Some antibacterial medicines have been made that attack the ribosomes of a bacterium, leaving it unable to produce proteins, and therefore killing it. Because the ribosomes are different, the cells of the host are left unharmed by the antibiotic. Other antibiotics target certain portions of the cell wall. Some bacteria have long, whip-like structures called “”flagella”” that they use for movement.
Bacteria can occur in three basic shapes:
Name Basic Shape Example
(starting to divide)
Reproduction: Bacteria undergo a type of asexual reproduction known as “”binary fission.”” This simply means they divide in two, and each new bacterium is a clone of the original – they each contain a copy of the same DNA. Bacteria can reproduce very quickly. In fact, in an ideal laboratory situation, an entire population of bacteria can double in only twenty minutes. At this enormous growth rate, one bacterium could become a BILLION (1,000,000,000) bacteria in just 10 hours! Luckily, there are neither enough nutrients nor space available to support this rapid growth, or the world would be overrun with bacteria. As it is, bacteria can be found living on almost any surface and in almost any climate in the world.
Hosts and resistance: As stated, bacteria can grow nearly everywhere. These microbes have been around for billions of years because they are able to adapt to the ever-changing environment. They can find a home anywhere, and some of them live in places where it was once thought ‘nothing’ could survive. There are bacteria in the soil, at the depths of the ocean, living in the mouth of volcanoes, on the surfaces of teeth, and in the digestive tracts of humans and animals. They are everywhere and are very numerous. For example, a single teaspoon of soil is said to contain at least 1,000,000,000 bacteria. Most often, bacteria are thought of as a bad thing, but most bacteria are not pathogenic (disease-causing). In fact, many bacteria are very helpful to us. There are species that decompose trash, clean up oil spills, and even produce medicines. The few species that are pathogenic, however, give the rest of the bacteria a bad name.
Pathogens are rated on two characteristics – invasiveness and toxigenicity. Invasiveness is a measure of the bacterium’s ability to grow inside the host, and toxigenicity measures the capacity of the bacterium to produce toxins (chemical substances that cause damage to the host). The combination of these two characteristics gives the final rating of the bacteria’s virulence (ability to cause disease). A species does not necessarily need to have both high invasiveness and high toxigenicity to be rated highly virulent. One or the other can be high enough to cause the bacterium to be very virulent. For example, the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (causes pnuemonia) does not produce a toxin, but it is so highly invasive that it causes the lungs to fill up with fluid from the immune response. In contrast, the bacteria Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) is not very invasive, but it produces a potent toxin that causes damage at a very small concentration.
How does the body fight off a bacterial infection? Again, the body mounts an immune response to the foreign invader, producing antibodies for immediate help and future protection. Since this process takes about a week, antibiotics are usually employed in the meantime. Antibiotic drugs are usually only successful in treating bacterial infections, not viral, or fungal infections. Professionals are becoming concerned that the overuse of antibiotics when they are not needed may lead to the mutation of normal bacteria into antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacteria are very resilient and have already developed resistance to many antibiotics. Another concern is that the helpful bacteria that live in the digestive tract may also fall prey to the antibiotics. These bacteria, known as “”natural flora,”” produce vitamins that the host organism uses and needs, as well as help in the digestion of food.
Newark New Jersey USA
Pembroke Pines, Florida
Yonkers, New York
Warrnambool Victoria Australia
Al Hayrah, United Arab Emirates, Al Hayrah, UAE